Advance Automotive Cooling Systems: Types, Components & Benefits

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We know that in case of Internal Combustion engines combustion of the air and fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder and hot gases are the generated. The temperature of gases will be the around 2300-2500°C. This is a very high temperature and the may result into burning of oil film between the moving parts and may result into seizing or welding of the same. So this temperature must be reduced to the about 150-200°C at which the engine will work most the efficiently. Too much cooling is also not the desirable since it reduces the thermal efficiency.

So the object of cooling system is to keep the engine running at its most efficient operating the temperature. It is to be the noted that engine is quite inefficient when it is cold and hence the cooling system is designed in such a way that it prevents cooling when the engine is warming up and till it attains to the maximum efficient operating temperature then it starts the cooling. In this system the circulation of water is due to difference in the temperature difference in densities of the water. So in this system pump is the not required but water is circulated because of the density difference only.

Automobile cooling system layout

Literature review

Subheads, remain, &guitar, 2018) worked with on the radiator system with the aid of Nano particle incorporated with extremely-sonication. The setup used by the author was experimental where various practical observations were recorded. In the experimental procedure fraction of Nano particles, coolant waft charge, inlet temperature used inside the degrees of 0. 2–0. 8%, 4–9 l/m. In the results of this experimental it is explained that the fluid with Nano material mixed have the high efficiency as compared to the fluid without Nano particles. High amount of heat transfer is seen with the coolant fluid having Nano particles mixed.

 With lowest 0.2% volume fraction there is rise of 30% heat transfer in the overall system. All, ozkaymak, size, manlike, &faced, 2018) worked on an experimental study where a coolant with Nano particles is mixed to have the improvement in overall efficiency of the system. For the experimental work tio2 mixed with water Nano- fluid is used as a coolant for the functioning in radiator of of car engine experimentally. For evaluating the results water and tio2 with water is used as working fluid or the coolant for the heat energy transfer. Both
the fluids were used one after the other in the experimental setup. For the study fiat double 1.3 mjtdengine is used.

What is a Cooling System

A typical 4 cylinder vehicle cruising along the highway at around 50 miles per hour will be the produce 4000 controlled explosions per minute inside the engine as spark plugs ignite the fuel in each cylinder to propel vehicle down the road. Obviously these explosions produce an enormous amount of the heat and if not controlled, will destroy an engine in a matter of the minutes. Controlling these high the temperatures is job of the cooling system. The modern cooling system has not changed much from the cooling systems in model T back in the ’20s.

Oh sure it has become infinitely more the reliable and efficient at doing its job but the basic cooling system still consists of the liquid coolant being circulated through the engine then out to the radiator to be cooled by the air stream coming through  front grill of the vehicle. Today’s cooling system must maintain the engine at a constant temperature whether the outside air temperature is 110 degrees Fahrenheit or the 10 below zero. If the engine temperature is too low fuel economy will suffer and emissions will be the rise. If the temperature is allowed to the get too hot for too long engine will be the self-destruct.

Integrated Cooling System

Types of Cooling Systems

1.Air Cooling System

Air cooled system is the generally used in small engines say up to the 15-20 kW and in aero plane the engines. In this system fins or the extended surfaces are provided on the cylinder walls cylinder head etc. Heat generated due to combustion in the engine cylinder will be conducted to the fins and when air flows over fins, heat will be dissipated to the air.

2.Water Cooling System

In this method the cooling water jackets are provided around the cylinder head valve seats etc. The water when circulated through the jackets it absorbs heat of the combustion. This hot water will then be cooling in the radiator partially by a fan and partially by the flow developed by forward motion of the vehicle. The cooled water is the again recirculated through water the jackets. There are the two types of water cooling the system.

3.Thermos Siphon System

In this system the circulation of water is due to difference in the temperature difference in densities of the water. So in this system pump is the not required but water is circulated because of the density difference only.

4.Pump Circulation System

In this system circulation of the water is obtained by the pump. This pump is driven by the means of engine output shaft through the V-belts.

What the cooling system does for an engine

  • Although gasoline engines have the improved a lot, they are still not very efficient at turning chemical energy into the mechanical power.
  • Most of the energy in gasoline perhaps 70% is converted into heat and it is the job of cooling system to the take care of that heat. In fact the cooling system on a car driving down the freeway dissipates enough heat to the heat two average-sized houses.
  • The primary job of the cooling system is to keep the engine from overheating by transferring this heat to the air but cooling system also has several other the important jobs.
  • The engine in your car runs best at a fairly high the temperature.
  • When the engine is cold components wear out faster and the engine is less efficient and emits more the pollution.
  • So another important job of the cooling system is to allow the engine to heat up as quickly as possible and then to keep engine at a constant the temperature.
Layout of cooling system

Advantages of Air Cooled System

Following are the advantages of air cooled the system

  • Radiator the pump is absent hence system is the light.
  • In case of the water cooling system there are leakages the but in this case there are no the leakages.
  • Coolant and the antifreeze solutions are not the required.
  • This system can be the used in cold climates where if water is used it may the freeze.

Disadvantages of Air Cooled System

  • Comparatively it is less the efficient.
  • It is used in the aero planes and motorcycle engines where the engines are exposed to air the directly.

Advantages of Water Cooling System

  • Uniform cooling of the cylinder cylinder head and the valves.
  • Specific fuel consumption of the engine improves by using water cooling the system.
  • If we the employ water cooling system then engine need not be the provided at front end of   moving the vehicle.
  • Engine is the less noisy as compared with air the  cooled engines as it has water for damping the noise.

Disadvantages of Water Cooling System

  • It is the depends upon supply of the water.
  • The water pump which up the circulates water absorbs considerable the power.
  • If the water cooling system fails then it will be the result in severe damage of the engine.
  • The water cooling system is the costlier as it has more number of the parts. Also it is the requires more maintenance and care for it’s the parts.

Which is the reason of a cooling system

  • Only a fraction of the fuel power is the usable.
  • The main part is rejected through the exhaust line or is rejected as the heat.
  • The cooling system is used to transfer the heat in excess to ambient and to keep the engine temperature within the limits.

Water subsystem

  • The excess of engine heat is transferred from the engine metal structure to the coolant which through the heat exchanger radiator installed in front of the vehicle is cooled by the ambient air.
  • A centrifugal the pump usually driven by the engine shaft circulates the coolant.
  • Usually the coolant liquid is a water ethylene glycol mixture with the specific cleaning and anticorrosion the agents.
  • This mixture presents the following advantages:-The High specific heat and heat the capacity, The Low viscosity so the blow pressure losses and good heat the exchange,No significant variation of the physical properties along the time and a wide range of the temperature,High latent heat of the evaporation.
  • The Ethylene glycol is the added to lower the water freezing temperature below the -30 °C.
  • The radiator is main component of the system. Its size may impact the complexity and cost of the whole system the integration.

Charge Air subsystem

The main goal of the Charge Air cooling system is to the decrease temperature of the pressurized air after the turbocharger.

  • A low air the temperature guarantees a good combustion inside the engine lowering the pollutant emissions and fuel the consumption.
  • Also the system should assure best trade-off the between pressure drop and air volume from the compressor outlet to intake manifold to the enable an optimal power the supply.

The main constraints the are:-

  • The heat exchange according to the vehicle thermal the balance.
  • The packaging limitations inside the engine bay installation constraints and the safety the requirements.

Engine cooling

  • Radiator: to the make sure engine works at it’s the optimal temperature (80-90°C).
  • Intercooler: to cool down the fresh air whose temperature is the increased after through the turbocharger.
Engine Cooling

Energy distribution in vehicle

  • In order to the save fuel consumption in the vehicles what can be the done.

           (1) Can be the reuse some energy from the engine coolant.
           (2) Can be the recover some energy from the exhaust gas.
           (3) Can be the recover some mechanical energy.

Components used in engine cooling

  • Reservoir: it factors the coolant to the radiator. It serves the more quantity of the coolant in it and the provide it to radiator inside the case of coolant degree in radiator goes the down.
  • Fan: it is related behind the radiator to enlarge cooling ability. It drew fresh air via the
    radiator. It will increase the mass glide charge of air which will increase the effectiveness of the device.
  • Radiator: the radiator is one of the types of heat exchanging system wherein the coolant permits the switch of heat with the aid of the phenomenon of conduction and convection to air surrounding. Its miles constituted with various fins connected to the several no. Of tubes which increase vicinity exposed to surrounding.
  • Thermostat: it keeps the proper temperature through diverse the quantity of Coolant flowing to radiator.

Conclusion of graphite foam heat exchanger

  • Low pressure drop and the high thermal performance have been provided by the corrugated and pin-finned graphite the foams.
  • The corrugated and pin-finned graphite foams the have higher PD and CF values than the aluminum louver fin. This implies a light or the compact cooling system in the vehicles.
  • By the using an appropriate configuration of the graphite foam, it is possible to have the similar COP value as aluminum louver the fin.


After study literature review based observe diverse studies have been studied to have the right scope and knowledge of working with radiator machine. Radiator is cooling device used exactly for the cooling of heat produced for the duration of the functioning of engine. In this research paper, the overview study on car radiator is done. By using considering the factors which impacts the engine cooling gadget, the layout parameters of radiator are studied.

 The cooling device of a car performs a vital role in its performance, includes fundamental elements, diagnosed as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine’s overall performance, decline the gas consumption and restrict the air pollutants emissions. Shape the literature survey it’s been viewed that still there is lot of scope of work in this discipline through thinking about diverse parameters and acquiring their maximum dependable values to have excessive efficiency with limited resources.

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