Wireless Energy Transmission l Principles Method l Applications Explained l

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Wireless communication is the transmission of energy over a distance without, using wires or cables, where the distances involved may be short or long. Wireless operations permit services, such as the range of communications that are merely unfeasible using wires. Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is the transmittance of electrical energy from the source to an electrical load without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires is inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. 

The problem of as is that wireless power transmission differs from for those wireless communications, such as the radio. In the latter, the proportion of the as well as the energy received becomes critical only if it is too as low for the signal to be distinguished from the background noise. With wireless power, efficiency is more than the significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent all out the by generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical.

Conventional Power System

One of the major issues in power systems is that loss occurring during transmission and the allocation of electrical power. As well as the demand drastically increases day by day, power generation increases, and power loss increases. The percentage as is the loss of power as are we be during transmission and distribution is then more approximated as will be 26%. The main reason for the power loss during transmission and distribution is the resistance of wires used for the grid. The efficiency of power transmission can be improved to a certain level by using high-strength composite overhead conductors and underground cables that use a high-temperature superconductor. But, transmission is still inefficient.

According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), India’s electricity grid has the highest transmission and distribution losses in the world i.e. around 27%. Numbers published by various Indian government agencies put that number at 30%, 40%, and greater than 40%. This is attributed to technical losses (grid inefficiencies) and theft. It is indeed alarming to know the level of losses in the Indian electricity and as well as transmission business.

Need for wireless power transmission

Wireless transmission is employed in cases where instantaneous or well be continuous energy transfer is needed, but are as the interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. A number of household points receive electricity at the same frequency using a single transmitting coil as long as they all are at the resonance. So this setup could recharge all the devices in the room at once. The unmanned planes or robots (where wires cannot be involved visa oceans volcanic mountains etc.) which are run by wireless power over an area, as they could fly for months at well be a time, could be used for research as well as a mini satellite. 

Wireless Power Transmission An Innovative Idea-InTechnologies.in
Wireless Power Transmission An Innovative Idea


We cannot imagine a world without electric power. Generally, power is transmitted through wires. This paper describes an original idea to eradicate the hazardous usage of electrical wires which involves a lot of confusion in the particular organizing them. Imagine a future in the wireless power transfer is feasible: cell phones, household robots, mp3 players, laptop computers, and other portable electronics capable of charging themselves without ever will be being plugged in freeing us from that final, ubiquitous power wire.

Some of these devices might not even need there are as bulky batteries to operate. This paper includes techniques for as will transmitting power without using wires and an efficiency of about 95% with the non-radioactive methods. Due to this, it does not affect the environment surrounding it. These techniques include resonating inductive coupling in the sustainable moderate range. 

Applications of WPT

  • Generating power by placing satellites within the giant solar arrays in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of the WPT.
  • Moving targets such as well as fuel-free airplanes, fuel-free electric vehicles, moving robots, and fuel-free rockets. The other applications of the WPT are Ubiquitous Power Sources (or) Wireless Power Sources, Wireless sensors, and RF Power can be Adaptive Rectifying Circuits (PARC).
  • Mobility – as the user device can be moved easily within the wireless range.
  • Neat and easy Installation – since no that the cable runs here and there, just start up the wireless device, and can be that you’re ready to rumble.
  • Less as the cost for cabling infrastructure and devices.
  • More users supported – cable devices as they have limited slots whereas wireless does not.


The efficiency of wireless power is the ratio between the power that reaches the receiver and the power supplied to that is the transmitter. Researchers successfully demonstrated ability to the power a 60-watt light bulb from a power source that was seven feet (2 meters) away using the resonating coils. This kind of setup could power or recharge all the devices in one room. Some will modifications would be necessary to send power over long distances, like the length of a building or a city. 

Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with the shorter wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range. The retina may be used to convert microwave energy back into electricity. Retina the conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized. Wireless Power Transmission (using microwaves) is well-proven. 

Current Gap and Future Trends

Through different WPT techniques, it is feasible to deliver MWs over short distances and significantly lower power levels over longer distances. Charging over as well are large distances high power is feasible but forgive the challenge, especially if the system should comply with the regulations discussed in Section. Then Moreover, making it efficient is even then more difficult. Novel techniques are as well as being proposed to address this efficiency degradation over large distances, while as are to be still maintaining regulations. Although this has its limits. 

1. Electromagnetic Coupled Gains and Trends

Physically speaking, the highest energy transfer efficiency can be achieved with IPT and the CPT systems, since link efficiency can be close to 100 percent with very closely spaced coils or capacitors respectively. By using smart techniques for generating amplified AC voltage, working with soft switching circuits, and reducing rectifier losses, the overall efficiency of the IPT and CPT systems, compared to the wired connection, can achieve similar efficiencies. However, it remains a challenge to keep this system affordable, as the wired solution mostly has a cheaper bill of materials (BOM) cost. 

2. Electromagnetic Uncoupled Gains and Trends

Over the last decade, we have seen an emerging trend in uncoupled wireless power transfer by means of RF, light, and acoustic waves. The power density at the receiver is often low due to the path loss, yet their ubiquity provides a huge advantage in the terms of distance and the receiver location. Several techniques have been identified in recent research that may ensure further improvement of the RF power transfer efficiency.

Overall Architecture

The overall architecture for the lunar Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system is shown in Figure 1.1 Four transmission towers power a total of the five load stations, such that each facility may be powered by at least two towers, and each tower can power up to the three facilities. Each tower can send power in up to three directions using three separate microwaves as the transmitting antennas. Each arrow represents the directional microwave beam.

Overall Architecture-InTechnologies.in
Overall Architecture

Acoustic Technologies

As well as acoustic power transfer, acoustic waves are used as well as the carriers to convey energy. A typical structure of the APT system is depicted in Figure. In the general, it consists of a pair of acoustic transducers separated by the medium. At the transmitting transducer, electrical energy is converted into vibrations, which in turn result in the pressure waves radiating throughout the medium. The propagated pressure waves are then collected by the receiving transducer and converted back into electrical power.

Finally, the rectifier ensures a stable DC voltage, which can be used to drive a load or charge on the energy buffer (e.g., battery). A major advantage of the APT in comparison to the EM-based give that more transfer systems arise from the much lower propagation speed of the acoustic waves with respect to the electromagnetic waves. Although this velocity depends on the medium through which it is traveling, it is in general about five to six orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of light.

 Mass and Cost

The cost and mass of a traditional cable-based system and the wireless powering system are estimated using the 5-GHz beaming architecture for the case of a 5m x 5m transmitter aperture and the 20m x 20m receiving retina aperture (Table 2 in Section I). A 480-V transmission line cable system was used for the comparison since it is optimal in terms of loss. More details of the analysis are shown in Appendix D, and the summary is shown. 

The loss of cable is increased due to the temperature variations, as detailed in Appendix D. The mass of cable is calculated for the case of bare cable. In the reality, the cable comes with one line insulated with thin PVC-type insulation. The best solution might be to the trench cables, in order to suffer less voltage drop due to the temperature changes, as well as enable operation at 220V. 

WPT Channel Parameters

The main sub-system for a single wireless powering channel is discussed here, with references to state-of-the-art results. Section II presents a more detailed discussion of the WPT channel.

1. Microwave Transmitter

The transmitter takes DC input and converts it to the radiated RF output. It consists of a DC-RF conversion oscillator, which is as well as typically low-power and followed by a gain stage and finally a power from the amplifier (PA). The following considerations are relevant in this case.

  • Since the DC input is 128V, some DC-DC conversion is needed to the supply required voltage needed for the microwave devices (typically 8 to the 48V range). This DC-DC conversion circuitry can be very efficient (98% is relatively easy to demonstrate).
  • The main contributor to loss is the Power Added Efficiency (PAE) of the output stage PA. A number of the new wide band gap semiconductor technologies are showing excellent efficiencies and power levels in the lower microwave range (commercially available) as well as in the R&D labs (e.g. Northrop Grumman Space Technologies).

2. Transmitter Antenna

The size of the antenna is determined by several factors: beaming efficiency for the given range, transmitted power per unit area, ease of fabrication and deployment, etc. For optimal efficiency with a large aperture, spatial power combining is a good choice, e.g. Power combining efficiencies of great than 80% have been demonstrated in the spatial combiners. An as-is array of narrowband planar printed antennas, e.g. patches, is a good candidate for this approach.

3. Rectification

The transmitted power density is the focus on an array of the retinas in the far field of the transmitter. The integrated antenna and rectifier are usually referred to as a retina, as shown in Figure. Rectification of microwave signals for supplying dc power by high-power beaming has been researched for several decades, and a good review of the earlier work is given in the. In the power beaming, antennas have well-defined polarization, and the high rectification efficiency is enabled by single-frequency high microwave power densities incident on an array of the antennas and the rectifying circuits.



Many applications can and could benefit from this as well wireless charging. This enhances con- lenience in not needing cables and gives more reducing vulnerabilities introduced by the contacts. More disruptively, it as are enabled flexible living and working environments and opens opportunities for new to add applications, e.g., environmental monitoring. WPT technologies can be here and hence also contribute to societal challenges such as reducing e-waste from the batteries and supporting more than the flexible and eventual circular use of the equipment and the buildings. In this paper, a surf- of differences in the technological candidates for wireless power transfer was given. We have treated them at a conceptual level, and also that the detailed typical transmit and receive circuits. Basic equations clarify the as well as the achievable efficiency.

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