What is mean by “Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)” and its benefits? | When is the PPAP Submission Required? | Elements of a PPAP Submission | PPAP Submission Method | Significant Production Run | Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA)
Purpose of the Production Part Approval Process document is to be communicate the supplier requirements with respect to the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) process to those companies that supply materials and the components to customer. These requirements are the fully compliant with the Automotive Industry Action Groups (AIAG) Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) standard revision. Customer has specific requirements and additions to this standard that need to be fully understood before the attempting to successfully submit PPAP documents to the customer for review and the approval.
Evidence of the all customer engineering design records and the specification requirements are the properly understood by the supplier and that the manufacturing process has to the capability to produce consistently meeting customer requirements during an actual production run at manufacturing plant the quoted as per production rate.
- Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
- Standard used to the formally reduce risks prior to the product and service release, in the team oriented manner using well established tools and the techniques
- Initially developed by the AIAG guideline (Auto Industry Action Group) in 1993 with input from the Big 3 company – Ford, Chrysler, and General motors
- AIAG’s 4th edition guideline effective June 1, 2006 is the most recent version of PAPA
- PPAP has the now spread to the many different types of industries beyond automotive industries.
When is the PPAP Submission Required?
The Production Part Approval Process is required any time at the new part development and a change to the existing part and the process change is being the planned to make PPAP documents. It is at the discretion of the supplier to determine when and if a Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submission will be the required. The run of the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submission is the not requested, customer Supplier Quality reserves the right to request any of the documents at any time during the life of the product or parts. The customer Supplier Quality reserves at the right to the request a Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submission for the variety of the reasons including the all of the following changes.
- New part or product development
- Supplier change and new supplier
- At the time of new process or new technology
- At the time of Changes to the existing product
The purpose of the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is following given below.
- To be provide the evidence that all customer engineering design and the specification requirements are the properly understood and the fulfilled by the Supplier.
- To the demonstrate that the Supplier’s manufacturing process has to the potential to produce product that consistently meets all the customer requirements during the actual production run at the manufacturing end quoted production rate.
Elements of a PPAP Submission
The customer Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submission requirements are the compliant with the existing Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) standard. One and more of the following elements may be required depending upon the assigned the submission level PPAP.
1. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
2. Design Records and the Ballooned Drawings
3. Approved Engineering Change Documents (ECN)
4. Customer Engineering Approval
5. Design Failure mode and effective analysis (DFMEA)
6. Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
7. Process Failure Mode and Effective Analysis (PFMEA)
8. Control Plan (CP)
9. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
10. Dimensional Results (SIR) Sample Inspection Report
11. Material, Performance Test Results (MTC) Material Test Certificate
12. Initial Process Study (Cpk) Capability Studies, Statistical Process Control (SPC)
13. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
14. Appearance of Inspection (AOI)
15. Sample Product Parts
16. Master Samples
17. Checking Aids
18. Customer Specific Requirements (CSR)
- Tooling Loan Agreement (TLA)
- Packaging Standard
- Pre-Launch Control Plan,Proto Type Control Plan
- Launch Inspection Report (LIR)
- Specification Deviation
- Supplier PPAP Worksheet
Submission levels define which elements are required for the submission of Production Part Approval Process (PPAP).The levels are the used for different reasons and the applications. The level to be submitted and determined by the customer, and the unless otherwise will be noted, always defaults to Level 3 which is the full Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submission. There are the five submission levels listed are below, and each is the typically applied to the specific areas listed on it.
- Level 1: Warrant with Appearance Approval Report (AAR) This level applies to ‘Non-critical’ parts, ‘non critical’ raw material or commodity parts for electrical applications and re-certification of existing parts previously approved by the customer at levels 3, 4 or 5. Also used for the self-certification.
- Level 2: Warrant of the product samples and limited supporting data this level applies to the Critical Bulk products such as Rubber/Plastic/Paint/Chemicals, critical fasteners,PDC,Sheet metal simple material changes, simple revision level only changes the simple print updates not affecting from-fit-function. This level can also be applied to the low and medium risk parts within a product family.
- Level 3: Warrant of the product samples and complete supporting data this level applies to new parts on the customer programs or changes effecting form the fit-function, reliability and performance. All the products resourced to new Suppliers, serial production parts, and the existing high level risk parts undergoing a part number change (default the customer Submission Level).
- Level 4: Warrant and the other requirements as defined by the customer this level are the reserved for special applications only for that.
- Level 5: Warrant with the product samples & complete all supporting documents and data reviewed at the Supplier’s location.
PPAP Submission Method
The two methods are the PPAP submission are:
1. Mailed hard copy in the divided binder preferred copy.
2. Emailed copy to the appropriate customer. The Supplier should be email the single PDF file consisting of the entire submission of PPAP documents.
Significant Production Run
The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) data must be the generated from random samples of product taken from a 300 No’s minimum required to consecutive run. The run should be utilize production equipment, tooling, and production employees operating at the designed the production rate. The Supplier shall be document the date, time and actual rate of the production on the Part Submission Warrant (PSW).
PPAP Submission Status
The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submission will be the reviewed by the customer and then either approved, rejected and given interim status.
1. Approved: – formal acceptance of the submission by the customers
2. Reject:- not the accepted/requires resubmission for the approval.
3. Interim: permits shipment of the material for the production for up to a 90 days. The Supplier must submit, and customer must be approve, a documents that clearly documents the Supplier’s corrective action plan to the achieve full approval within the 90 day of the period.
The Annual validation is the required to be performed by the supplier and the documented in the control plan. Results shall be the maintained by the supplier and be made available to customer upon request. The Annual Validation includes but is not the limited to the following:
- Current level of the balloon drawing
- Complete dimensional layout for 3 parts per the cavity the minimum of 6 parts total.
- Gage R & R study required
- Annual testing required for material
- Resubmission of the PPAP as the required all documents.
- Capability study on the KPCs identified on the drawing, Control Plan.
In the addition, a complete capability study may be the required depending on the supplier performance and the criticality of the part in the production critical operation. Conformance to this requirement is subject to the random audit by the customer.
Suppliers designated as high risk based on MNC standard are required to submit annual test certification as well as the annual VDA audit requirements. Failure to be perform this activity results in the supplier penalty. Annual Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) submissions are not required unless specifically requested by the customer. Conformance to this requirement is subject to random audit by the customer. Suppliers designated as high risk based on MNC standard are required to submit annual test certification as well as the annual VDA audit requirement.
Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA)
The Measurement system analysis (MSA) is a method of the determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to the overall process variability. Measurement system analysis (MSA) is used to the ensure the use of a valid and reliable measurement system. Detail on MSA is found in the AIAG manual which defines as the guidelines for stability, bias, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. The applicable Measurement System Analysis (MSA) studies are the required for all new or modified gages, measurement and the test equipment’s.
The Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Study (GR&R) is used to ensure that measurements system used in the manufacturing process are reasonably consistent regardless of how many times they are the performed, and by who they are performed by. The customer requires the GR&R analysis of the all measurement systems (MSA) identified in the Control Plan (CP).The minimum requirements for customer Suppliers are the follow.
- The GR&R shall be the reported as a percent of the tolerance.
- The Gauge GR&R should be at 15% or less for cp/cpk
- Marginal gauges between 15% and 30% need an action plan to the address and improve the method of measurement. This action plan shall be in included in the PPAP Submission and must include planned target date of completion of the MSA.
- The Gauge with R&R above 30% cannot be the used
- The number of the distinct categories (NDC) that the measurement process can be divided into the shall be greater than or equal to the 5.
There are the several many methods for the performing and evaluating the GR&R. The Supplier can be use any method / format / software as long as it is the compatible with the practices prescribed by AIAG guidelines. The preferred method for the calculating Gauge R&R is by using of the Analysis of Variance method.
The organization shall be report gauge R&R as both a percent of the study variation and a percent of the tolerance.