What is Digital Manufacturing(DM) System l Definition of DM l Applications of DM l Introduction l Objectives l What Is DM l Conclusion l
- The digital manufacturing system is the foundation on which the various modern advanced manufacturing the systems become a reality and realization of any modern manufacturing the system must be constructed on the basis of a digital manufacturing the system.
- Thus it is the necessary to clarify operation mode of the digital manufacturing system and the demands of its architecture before the studying digital manufacturing system and the constructing its integral model the system.
- Accordingly the basic realization process of digital the manufacturing system is the introduced in this section and its operation reference mode is the proposed based on this is process.
- In addition the architecture of digital manufacturing science is the presented according to discipline basis and application fields of the digital manufacturing.
Concepts and Research and Development Status of Digital Manufacturing
Since middle of the twentieth century science and technologies such as the microelectronics, automation, computers, telecommunications, networks and the informatics have undergone rapid development and a tidal wave that has information technology at its core has been the raised. The twenty-first century which is the marked by network and informatization will be change the way of obtaining processing exchanging and using information and the knowledge by human and will propel an unprecedented improvement of the people’s lifestyle production patterns and social the structure. On this basis new concepts new theories new the technologies new ideas and new methods are the endless.
The concepts of digital library digital valley digital home digital enterprise digital economy and the even digital earth which is the common framework used to describe the time sequence and spatial distribution of the various information on earth are same as the research works which are constantly being introduced and have begun to the enter our lives. As the basis of national economy the manufacturing industry is shouldering the important responsibilities of providing technical equipment to the national economic sectors and national defiance construction and the supplying living materials and wealth for people’s the material life.
Function Model of Digital Manufacturing System
The purpose of discussing the function model of the digital manufacturing system is to comprehensively analyses the compulsory functions and requirements of digital manufacturing system, to clarify the relationship between the different functions, and to provide direct guidance for the specific design and implementation of the system, which ensures that the operation structure of systems has rationality and robustness. According to the whole lifecycle of product manufacturing, the general function model of the digital manufacturing system can be validated by applying the hierarchy theory of system science and based on an integral model of the system.
After acquiring the external input information integral solution of the system is able to be determined through the generalized knowledge system by support of the equipment supporting operation platform supporting techniques and the manufacturing resources. A feasible scheme of the organization and operation which is optimal about the entire lifecycle of product is determined in the evaluation space according to system evaluation the rules. The process of solving problems should be decomposed into the different function subsystems which complete the tasks of producing product in the different stages.
Definition of Digital Manufacturing
Digital Manufacturing is the manufacturing process which, with the support of technologies such as virtual reality computer networks rapid prototyping and the database is based on customer demand so as to the analyses organize and recombine the product information process information and resource information implement the product design and function simulation as well as the rapid prototyping and then to perform rapid production to meet customer demand and the quality standards. As a new discipline of the manufacturing science it synthesizes various manufacturing disciplines and represents the mainstream development direction of the Advanced Manufacturing Technology.
Digital design and the digital management have fully developed along with the advancement of CAD and the development of material requirements planning (MRP). In the last 10 years with the support of virtual reality computer network rapid prototyping multi-media and so on the simulation and prototype manufacturing of the design and functions of product can be quickly realized by the rapidly analyzing planning and recombining coordinating and the sharing of all kinds of information product information process information control information and the resources information to manufacture the product according to the user’s requirements as soon as the possible. All the processes involved with the above digital activities are related to the DM.
Digital Manufacturing Idea Taking Control for Canter
- The concept of DM is first generated from the numerical control technology (NC or CNC) and the NC machine tools. NC technology gives directions expressed in the numbers and characters and controls machines with those the directions.
- Not only does it is the control position angle speed and mechanical parameters but it also the controls temperature pressure flow and other the parameters. These parameters can not only be expressed in the numbers but also are measurable and the controllable. If one device uses numeric the commands to achieve its automatic process we call it NC the equipment. Obviously it is far from the DM but is a very important basis for the Digital Manufacturing(DM).
- To achieve automation with the many varieties and a small production batch the collaborative operation between a number of the CNC machine tools and one industrial robot develops in the order to process a group or several groups of parts with similar shape and the characteristics thereby the so-called flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) is constituted. Supported by a logistic automation system, a large-scale machining automation will be realized by combining a number of flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) or workstations together, which constitutes a flexible manufacturing cell (FMS).
- Flexible manufacturing cell (FMS) achieves the token, storage and control of material flow the machining flow and control flow in the machining process by digital quantity. Digital control can make the manufacturing processes automatic detect and control parameters of the manufacturing process notify faults and even propose decision-making and the suggestion of maintenance.
- With the development of network and computer technologies a Local Area Network (LAN) constituted by the networking more than one NC machine tool could make the production processes of a number of the workshops automatic. Furthermore the controller or control system in each piece of the equipment will become a node in the Internet which leads to the manufacturing process developing in the direction of automation with a larger scale and at the higher level. It is the so-called DM idea that takes control for the canter.
Objectives of Digital Manufacturing
- This is a chapter introduces readers to the term reverse engineering (RE) and to the associated techniques that can be used for scanning the physical parts.
- In addition the chapter presents process of the reverse engineering and strategy for scanning and converting the scanned data into a 3-D surface or the solid model.
Applications of Digital manufacturing
1. Automotive Industry
- The automotive industry being the early adopters of rapid prototyping has seen remarkable advancements in the manufacturing and technology which resulted in customized designs cleaner lighter and the safer products at lower cost and reduced time to the market.
- Applications of 3D printing in the automotive industry range from building prototypes jigs and the fixtures tooling low volume end user products and concept models and the reproducing parts.
- Various 3D printed innovations like the variable 3D printed turbo technology for Koenig egg One safe smart and the sustainable LM3D 3D printed car series from the local motors, on demand 3D printing of the Audi spare parts new chassis construction for Blade a 3D printed supercar by the Divergent Micro factories race ready parts for WilliamsF1, thumb tool for BMW etc. are now the available Hall 2016.
- The advantages of AM in the automotive industry include increased speed in the product design phase of new product development by the enhancing quality customized fabrication of tooling with the reduced cost complex designs with reduced weight reduced assembly and the production costs.
- However the application of AM in the automobile industry is facing few challenges like low production speed of the AM limitations of AM in producing large parts and shortage of the skilled personnel.
- Despite the challenges freeform capabilities of the AM and reduced time to market of the final product is playing an important role in shaping the automotive industry Gaffe Ganglia, & the IL Linda 2014. Illustrates the applications of AM in Automotive the industry.
2. Aerospace and defiance Industry
- Additive manufacturing technologies found its applications in the aerospace and defiance industry in manufacturing lightweight parts with the geometric and material complexities necessary to ensure safe travel in the stringent conditions.
- From design concept to end life repairs aerospace and the defiance industries incorporated AM technologies in every step of the manufacturing to take full advantage of the technology Hymens 2014. Electron Beam Technology (EBM) is used to the manufacture complex aerospace the components Die-off et al 2013.
- Shows the additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Bleed Air Leak Detect the bracket. Additive technologies with the digital link enable to maintain digital models of the spare parts reducing expenses of physical warehousing and increase the availability of parts at the point of use.
- The advantages of AM in aerospace and defiance industry include reduced time to the market design of complex tools and parts at low cost waste reduction and the part simplification Coy Kendall, Cottager, Godowsky, & the Mehta, 2014.
3. Food industry
- The decrease in price of 3D printers and sophisticated technologies enabled the application of AM in the food industry.
- Since food processing the involves labor intensive and repetitive operation automation in the food manufacturing increases efficiency and the quality.
- Food printing a digital food the manufacturing process allows customized color, shape, flavor, texture etc. to the cookie Sun, Zhou, Huang, Fun, & the Hong 2015.
- A 3D Flooding printer by the natural Machines can print sweet and savory dishes like the pizza spaghetti mini burgers and chocolates etc. of specific calorie portions where the user have to cook food Keating the 2014.
- Shows the advancements in 3D food printing the processes. The main advantage of edible printing is the less shelf time of food compared to traditionally and the centrally manufactured items. However, handling multiple ingredients without out compromise in the quality is still a challenge Kim Porter Jarrod Phipps Adam Szepkouski, & the Abide, 2015.
What Is Digital Manufacturing
Digital Manufacturing represents an integrated suite of PLM tools that supports manufacturing process design, tool design, plant layout, and visualization through powerful virtual simulation tools that allow the manufacturing engineer to validate and optimize the manufacturing processes.
Digital Manufacturing Landscape
- Manufacturers are the focusing on Optimization of Production the Processes.
- Reducing Time to the Product Launch and Cost of Commissioning Production the System.
- Today’s PLM Suppliers now offer robust the Digital Manufacturing(DM) Solutions.
- Large Manufacturers Are the Adopting End-to-End PLM Strategies including the Digital Manufacturing.
- A&D: Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Northup-Grumman.
- Automotive: GM, Chrysler, Ford, Toyota, Nissan, BMW, Mercedes Benz.
- Heavy Equipment: Caterpillar, John Deere, Cummins.
What Does Digital Manufacturing Do
- Manufacturing Planning
- Define High-Level Manufacturing Processes
- Process Planning (Assembly & Installation)
- Define Work Instructions & Work Flow
- Detailed Process Design & Analysis
- Detailed Resource Modeling & Simulation
- Process Definition and Validation
- 3-D Factory Layout
- Equipment, Tool & Fixture Simulation
- Ergonomic Simulation
- Validation & Virtual Commissioning
- Control Logic Validation
- Kinematic (Robotic) Validation
- Quality Assurance/Process Improvement Validation
- Sensor/Metrology Placement Validation
- Virtual Commissioning/Validation of Automation Systems
- Knowing that the Production System Works Prior to Launch: Priceless.
In this chapter fundamental information on reverse engineering (RE) hardware and the software was presented and commercial technologies for the reverse engineering (RE) data acquisition and processing were the introduced. Today there is a variety of the reverse engineering(RE) hardware for reverse engineering both the in eternal and external structures of and the object. However selecting the right reverse engineering (RE) hardware and software for an reverse engineering(RE) project is the not easy. Of the many selection crate rim the nature of the application is most important. Although the chapter presented limited application examples reverse engineering (RE) applications have been introduced in the many areas.