Vacuum Braking System: Working, Parts, Advantages, Disadvantages & Conclusion
Table of Contents
Brakes consist of the mechanical elements to slow or stop shafts on drives of the equipment. They use levers or connections to the transmit strength from one point to the next. Braking slows or prevents the shafts moving together. Mechanical brakes are easiest to the set have a metal strip lined with the friction fabric which is resistant to heat and the wear.
When the sanding shoes press a spinning surface called the drum drum brakes which are the widely used on automotive rear wheels the function. Brake pads a calliper a rotor are built in the disk brakes. The brake pads are pressed against the rotor during operation.
In the railway locomotives vacuum brakes are the first used instead of the air brakes. In the brake pipe vacuum pump is used for the creating vacuum.
The integral construction of the brake cylinder uses this vacuum reservoir for the application of the brakes. Nowadays many of the light vehicles are fitted with vacuum-assisted hydraulic braking system in the which vacuum is created from the engine which reduces the driver effort on the foot pedal.
The vacuum braking system was developed from the above said reasons and the same analysis for implementation in both heavy and the light vehicles.
In this system, vacuum is the created from engine and used for the making of application of the brakes. The system operation is similar to the air braking system. In the vacuums brake system the vacuum is used rather than of compressed air which is the used in air brake system. The design and modified system also includes the Vacuum brake system the loss of vacuum will cause the brake to be applied due to the spring force.
The ejector removes atmospheric pressure from the brake pipe to generate the vacuum by steam on the steam train or by a tug on other kinds of trains using the electric power. The brake is applied completely without the vacuum. The vacuum is generated by a motor-driven exhauster in the brake pipe and the retained. Two speeds elevated velocity and the low velocity are in the exhauster.
The high-speed is turned into a void and the brakes are the released. The vacuum at necessary level to the maintain frequency of brake release is used with the slow velocity. The brake pipe is preserved by vacuum from the tiny leaks. The function of vacuum braking the system parts are:-
- Brake valve: Using the brake valve driver regulates the brake. There are release, run, lap, stop, lap position to the operate brake the system.
- Exhauster: A two-speed train-fitting rotary machine to the remove air pressure from the brake tube, tanks, and the brake cylinders to release the brake.
- Dummy coupling: At the ends of every vehicle, a stupid couple point is the provided to seal ends of the brake pipe hoses when vehicle has been the disconnected.
- Coupled hoses: The brake tube is conveyed through flexible tubes between the neighbouring cars.
- Vacuum reservoir: A vacuum reservoir on or linked to the top of piston ensures the operation of brake has a source of the vacuum.
- Brake cylinder: The piston motion inside the cylinder runs the brakes via rigging the connections.
- Brake rigging: The motion of the brake cylinder piston transmits stress from this mechanism to the brake blocks of the every wheel.
- Brake block: The friction material pressed on the wheel surface by the upward motion of the piston brake cylinder.
- Ball valve: The ball valve must be maintained during the brake release, at desired level the same as brake pipe, while the vacuum in the vacuum tank is maintained, but the brake pipe connection should to be locked during break the Applica.
Parts of Vacuum Braking System
1. Driver’s Brake Valve
The driver brake valve used to control & monitor the brakes. The brake valve will have the following positions Release Running Lap and the Brake On. There may also to be the Neutral or Shut Down position which the locks valve out of the use. In the release position the exhauster connects to the brake pipe and switches exhauster to the full speed. This causes rise in the vacuum in the brake pipe as fatly as possible to get a release.
2. Brake Cylinder
Every vehicles has at the least one cylinder but sometimes two or the three cylinders are also there. Inside the cylinder piston is moves which operates the brakes through links called the rigging. The links which is known as the rigging applies blocks to the wheels. The piston brake cylinder moves with respect to the vacuum in the brake pipe. Loss of the vacuum applies the brakes whereas restoration of the vacuum releases the brakes.
3. Vacuum Reservoir
The operation of the vacuum brake depends on difference in the pressure between one side of the brake cylinder piston and the other. Vacuum reservoir is the provided to ensure that there is the always availability of source of the vacuum for operates the brakes.
Which is the connected to upper side of the piston. In the simplest type of brake cylinder is the integral with vacuum the reservoir. Some vehicles has the brake have a separate reservoir and the piped connection to the upper side of the piston.
4. Brake Block
Brake block is the friction material which is the pressed against piston of the brake cylinder. The brake block made of cast iron or the some composition material brake blocks are the main source of wear in the brake system. This brake block require regular inspection to see that they work effectively or the not.
5. Brake Rigging
Brake rigging is the system in which the movement of the piston in the brake cylinder transmits pressure to the brake blocks on each the wheel. Rigging can rarely to be the complex generally under a passenger car with the two blocks to each wheel be making a total of the sixteen.
The careful adjustment is the needed by rigging to the ensure that all blocks should be operated from the same cylinder which provides even rate of the application on each wheel. When we change one block, that time we have to the check and adjust all the blocks on that same axle.
A two-speed rotary machine fitted to a train to the deplete atmospheric pressure from the brake pipe reservoirs and the brake cylinders to release the brakes. This is usually controlled from the driver’s brake valve, in which switched in at full speed brake is the release or at slow speed to the maintain vacuum at its release level while train is the running. Exhausters can be the run directly from a diesel the engine.
7. Brake Pipe
The vacuum-carrying pipe transmits the pressure difference required to the control brake throughout it is the length. By the flexible hoses brake pipes connected between the vehicles, which can be the uncoupled to allow vehicles to be the separated. The use of vacuum system makes brake safe and the prevents from failing of the brakes loss of vacuum in the brake pipe will cause brake to the apply.
8. Dummy Coupling
A dummy coupling point is the provided at ends of each vehicle to the allow ends of the brake pipe hoses to be the sealed when vehicle is the uncoupled. The sealed dummy couplings the avoids lost from brake the pipe.
- On none ejector a vacuum pump is the required.
- Low pressure means relatively large brake cylinder are the required which may be awkward to the site.
- Leaks can be difficult to the find.
- High initial the cost.
- Simple in the design.
- Without any additional equipment ability to the get partial release.
- Greater amount of the safety because vacuum loss age results in the braking of the vehicle.
- In case of the rail wagons highly reliable.
- It permit the automatic application of the brakes down entire length of the train from simple control in the driver’s hand.
The vacuum brake was ordinary non-stoppable train brake used instead of the air brake by the railways. A brake pipe connects brake van into the driver’s car with the braking equipment of every vehicle to the handle vacuum brake the system. The pipe is supplied by an executor or the exhaust unit. So this braking system is the more efficient than other brake in the train.