Rubber Tyres Manufacturing Process: Plant Layout & Major Components
Company Name: Goodyear South Asia Tyres Pvt .Ltd.
R & D Canter: Good Year, Akron, USA. Good Year, Luxembourg, Europe.
Manufacturing Director: Mr David Lovell
Address: H-18, MIDC Industrial Area, Wale, Aurangabad-431136.
Product: Pneumatic Tyres (Radials, MCT & Earth Movers)
Location: 19 Kms. From Aurangabad City.
Area: 80 acres.
Employee number: 96-salary associates 550-hourly associates.
Major Customers: Tata Motors, Ford, Hyundai, Mercedes, Mahindra, Maroti, General Motors etc.
Sales figures (yearly): 2800000 Radials & 14000 Earthmovers.
Exports: All over the world
Quick Facts of the Company
The Goodyear Tyre & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by 38 year-old Fran Seliberling . He purchased first plant with a $3,500 down payment using money he borrowed from a brother-in-law. The timing couldn’t have been better. The bicycle craze of the 1890s was booming. The horseless carriage was a wide –open challenge. On Aug 29, 1898, Goodyear was incorporated with a capital stock of $100, 0
Its winged-foot trademark was inspired by a newel-post statuette of the Roman god Mercury in the home of Goodyear founder Frank Sobering. Sobering felt Mercury embodied many of the characteristics for which Goodyear products were known.
A Global Footprint:-
Goodyear is one of the world’s largest tyre companies, with operation in most regions of the world. Together with subsidiaries & joint ventures, Goodyear develops market & sells tyre for most applications. Goodyear operates more than 60 plants in 25 countries.
Become a market-focused tyre company providing superior products & services to end-users and to our channel partners, leading to superior returns for our shareholders.
For the better part of a century, Goodyear’s corporate values have been cantered on the phrase, “Protect Our Good Name“. Today, Goodyear is one of the world’s leading tyre companies. It is the No 1 tyre maker in North America & Latin America. It is Europe second largest tyre maker. This is brought to life through developing culture in which a committed and competitive team of associates can excel. Good year the employs about (75,000) people around the world. In 2008, it posted net sales of $19.5 billion. As told earlier, Goodyear is truly global organization and the bearer of a universally recognized brand name .With worldwide production & technological resources, it offers customers unparalleled international experience and the capacity to respond to the particular needs of local markets. The Goodyear name stands for unquestioned quality & diversity in the tyre business.
Plants & Department
Goodyear Tyres Ltd., India:–
Goodyear’s presence in India is over 80 years old, with two plants, one each in Ball aboard and Aurangabad. In 1922, Goodyear tyre & Rubber Company Akron, Ohio entered the Indian Market. Goodyear India’s own manufacturing facility was inaugurated in Ball bath in 1961.This place is 32 kms from India’s capital New Delhi. The plant had an way investment of the US $12million and the was commissioned within a 12 months. In 1993, Goodyear formed a 50-50 joint venture with South-Asian Tyres Ltd (SATL) at Aurangabad to manufacture states-of-art radial tyres for car and light truck and bias construction tyres for graders and earthmovers. Later on (1998) SATL becomes a fully owned Goodyear Company. Incidentally, Goodyear is the first tyre manufacturer to roll out tubeless tyres on Indian roads. In the passenger car and segment, Good year supplies tyres to be many of the leading original Equipment the Manufacturers in India. These include Marot, Telco, Mahindra & Mahindra, Ford, Fiat and many more. Good year the India has been a pioneer in the introducing tubeless radial tyres in the passenger car segment. In the farm segment, Good Year tyres are supplied to all the major Tractor manufacturers like PTL, ITL, TAFE, Either and Escorts. Similarly, for buses and trucks, vehicles rolling out of the assembly line of the leading OEMs like TELCO, Ashok Leyland, and Sara Masada are often seen with Goodyear tyres. Goodyear commands a major market share in the Off the Road segment by being a major supplier to Coal India Limited, Escorts, L&T, TISCO and major steel plants of the country. Good year the India rolls out the Excellence series-a new collection of the luxury passenger car tyres. Designed with the ultimate `3-Zone Technology`, and ECO-Silica Tread Compound Technology, the tyre provides superior comfort and precise handling on both wet and dry conditions for premium car drivers. In the 2006, it is launch of the branded retail shop-in- Shops the concept-the part of company’s strategic in to the organized tyre retailing, aimed at the strengthening it is presence in the large of tyre replacement market in the countries.
Business Team Concept:
In Goodyear, the tyre manufacturing is fragmented into three business teams. These teams carry their work by mutual understanding and help.
The three teams are A, B and C .Each team’s scope of working as follows:
BTA Consists of:
- Two Banbury F-370
- Four Roll fabric calendar
- Cold feed extruder (CFE)
- CNC machine (extrusion die profile formation)
- HTBC (High Table Bias Cutter)
- Gum Calendar
- Pot heaters-5 for small tires and 1 for large tire.
- Bartell machine (Bead forming machine of all sizes)
- Tire building machine for OTR
- Bead Opening
- Bias cutter
- Band building machine (no 1, 2)
- Laminator machine (Auto tread applying machine)
BTB Consists of:-
- Tire building machine (VMI, GPF, TAKU)
- Conway machine (to produce overlay)
- SRTBB machine (belt formation)
- Drum Booth
BTC Consists of:-
- Paint booth
- Radial tire curing press
- Final inspection
- Bladder assembly
- Mould Shop
- Uniformity section (FVM, DBM, X-Ray)
Finance department consist of:–
- Accounts department
- Costing department
- Indirect taxation
- MIS department
Goodyear uses cost canter concept. Various machine are given the different cost canter codes. The cost is added in these cost canter. These codes are uniform all over the Goodyear companies in the world, so that the cost of particular process can be compared and be subsequently improved. In account’s section, the different accounts are settled. The payment of bills has to be in the given time (3 months) .The account’s manager looks after the bill and their dates of payment. Costing department mainly distributed the cost of manufacturing, maintenance etc., to respective cost sheet. Each machine is given the Coad and the cost is given on the machine according to the time of working. The common bills like electricity, water, utility cost etc., is given to each of the machine. The cost sheet consists of Raw material cost, direct labour cost and overheads.
Introduction To Tyre Technology
- Geometrically – It is Steroidal in shape
- Mechanically – It is a flexible membrane the pressure container
- Structurally – It is a high performance composite of Rubber, Textile and Steel.
- Chemically – It consists of materials from long chain macro molecules
Function of a tyre:-
- Provide load-carrying capacity
- Provide cushioning
- Transmit driving and braking torque
- Produce cornering force
- Provide dimensional stability
- Provide steering response
- Be durable & safe
Today tires are highly engineered, laminated composite of materials whose properties range from the combinations of fibres and cords with the modulus and hardness ‘of high strength steel. Modern tires are expected to perform at higher speeds and support larger loads. Tires must maintain structural integrity over greater distances, provide traction on many surfaces and stop safely in short distances. This combination of engineering and materials science makes the tire the most durable, man-made.
Types Of Tyre
A) According to the orientation of the plies:
- Bias or Diagonal or Conventional Tyres
- Radial Tyres.
B) According to utility:
- Radial tyres- used for the comfort ride.
- MCT tyre-used for comfort ride.
- Earth Movers- used for cranes, mining etc.
- OTR-Off the road.
- ADV (Animal delivery vehicle)
C) According to the space used for filling air:
- Tubeless Tyre
- Tube type Tyre
D) According to Tread Design:
- Lug Tyre-fitted in Rear Wheel.
- Rib Tyre-fitted in Front Wheel.
- Semi Lug Tyre.
- Mud & Snow.
- Block Design.
Bias or, Diagonal Ply Tire
Tire having reinforcement layers of fabric cords in a cries-cross manner from bead to bead at an angle of 30 to 40 degrees.
- Increases SW impact / cut resistance.
- Lower deflection offers better overloading.
- Good under inflation resistance.
- Carcass pant graphing minimizes mechanical wear irregularities.
- No Steel’ carcass result in no cut resistance with easier repair and ret readability.
- Multiply nylon carcass construction reduces brake drum heat transfer in bead area.
- Diagonal bead construction less critical to rim irregularities.
Tire having reinforcement layers of fabric cords running from bead to bead at 88 to 90 degrees with an inextensible high modulus belt circumferentially around the casing at an angle of 16 to 25 degrees.
- No pant graphing-less heat build-up with improve heat dissipation.
- Lower spring rate-better damping and shock absorption.
- Increased comfort.
- Stabilized tread
- Increased mileage
- Less rolling resistance-fuel economy.
- Less susceptible to groove cracking.
- Less Noise.
Bias Belted Tire
Tire having a restricted belt over a Bias ply casing with a belt angle higher than radial belt angle.
Major Component of Tyre & functions
The basic Tyre Component and their function has been described below:-
The bead coil are a combination of multi-strand copper-coated high tensile steel wires. They have the function of providing rigid, practically inextensible units, which retain the inflated tyre on the rim under all conditions of loading. The appropriate number of wires, formed into a flat layer and uniformity separated, are coated with rubber compound by of a T-Head extruder. The layer of wires is coiled to form a ring, and the free wire ends are taped or stapled. For some purposes, the bead coil is covered with a light cross-woven rubberized textile to contain the wires and preclude any possibility of looseness in service.
(B) Bead Apex:-
The bead apex is a rubber compound strip located on the top face of the bead; its primary function is to pack out the area of structure immediately above the bead coil and so provides a steady gradation of thickness between the latter and sidewall zone. It fills the space of bead area and hence it is regarded as ‘Filler’.
(C) Body Plies:-
It is the carcass plies that give the tyre its strength. These consist of cords of nylon or polyester, woven as the warp of a fabric with only very light yarn, widely spaced as the weft. These weft strand serve to maintain the uniformity of cord spacing during handling 10 but play no part in the performance of the product. The fabric is treated with adhesive, rubberized to a thickness of approximated 1.0 mm and interleaved with a low moisture regain textile lining.
Belt is sheet consisting of a layer of closely-spaced steel cords and a second layer of rubber. Belts gives the tyre strength and dent resistance while allowing it to remain flexible.
The Sidewalls are the portion of the tyre contour between the beads and the tread that primarily control ride and support characteristics. High flex and weather resistance.
The inner liner is a calendared halo butyl rubber sheet compound with additives that result in low air permeability. The inner liner assure that the tire will hold high-pressure air inside, without the air gradually diffusing through the rubber structure.
The tread is the wear resistant component of the tire in contact with the road.
- Wear resistance
- Low heat build-up.
- High tear.
Protected the bead area, where tire touches the wheel. Protect the plies from chaffing against the rim fling.
Basic Tyre Care and Maintenance
Ensuring Tire is fitted with correct size Rim
- Fitting of Tires only on Auto Mounting Machine
- Usage of Smooth, Dent less and Rust free Rim
- Regular Inflation Pressure Checks
- Not to mix different tire size or tire construction on the same axle
- Periodical inspection and rotation of Tires
- Consumer Education for Puncture Repairs
Natural and synthetic rubber polymers are the basic components of our compounds. They are selected for use in a compound dependent upon the certain processing and cured tire properties which they will impart. Four Basic Rubbers Used in Rubber Compounding are.
4) Halo-Butyl ( Choro and Bromo butyl)
Vulcanizing agents are those materials which are used to convert viscos -elastic behaviour of rubber material to elastic and hence rubber materials are converted to insoluble and its dimensional stability increases. In tyre industry mainly sulphur type of vulcanization is used.