PROJECT BY MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PROTOTYPE MUFFLER | MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY | Project design and development | FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF MATERIALS | MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Present day engines are the required to have the more engine power and are also required to the meet to the strict pollution standards. In the automobile system exhaust muffler plays the integral role in reducing the sound of the automobile system, as well as the ride by itself. In order to be maintain the desired noise and comfortable of the ride, the modes of the muffler need to be the analysed. Here dynamic modal analyses were carried out to be determine the mode shapes, stresses and deformations of the exhaust muffler using CAE analysis.
In the function of the exhaust muffler is to be make the smooth path for flue gases emitted from the exhaust manifold while the reduces the clam our build by the automobile engine. Due to the twists and turns that the exhaust gas has to the make to reach the atmosphere, there is a considerable amount of the back pressure which restricts the free flow of the exhaust gases. It is the necessary to be reduce the backpressure as it reduces the fuel consumption of the engine system.
The major concern for the designer is to be ensure that the backpressure is the minimum. This project deals with the different type of four models of chambered exhaust muffler and concludes the best possible design for least pressure drop. Catia V5 version was used to design the exhaust mufflers. Numerical analysis for backpressure testing was conducted by Flow Simulation of Catia V5. Heat balance test on single cylinder diesel engine was the performed to know the mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. Flow trajectories are viewed to be know the flow of the exhaust gases through by the muffler. In the cut plots for the pressure and exhaust gas velocity are viewed. Pressure drop is to be calculated across the exhaust muffler by the viewing the pressure distribution.
A muffler is the component, which is the used to reduce the chaos produced by the internal combustion engine. It is installed within the exhaust system. The exhaust subsystem is exposed the high temperatures as they form the passage for the hot gases released by combustion of fuel to be released to the atmosphere. While there are the other prominent areas to be the focused during the design phases, the uniform distribution of heat over the entire exhaust muffler system including the silencer is of importance for ensuing enhanced life of the elements in the sub-system. The increase in world’s industrialization results biggest ever global warming.
Automobiles are the major contributors to environmental pollution. As pollution regulations are stringed among the countries, the automotive industry is being concentrated on reduction in exhaust emissions without affecting the performance of engine. The gases from the vehicles contains many combustion products that contribute to the air pollution, mainly carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).
Muffler is the one of the device to the reduction of adverse effects from internal combustion engine. This is work the design of muffler is modified in such a way that it reduces the backpressure and noise. The design of the chambered muffler consists of series of passages and chambers to the reduce sound pressure that produced from the engine system. Exhaust gases cannot flow the out to atmosphere properly as the back pressure is increased as the exhaust system shares the same complex of exit path built inside the muffler system.
The automotive industry is making the muffler designs by using cut methods which depend on what has been worked in the previous experiments. This difficulty has been accomplished by numerical methods, which helps to perform the tests on replica under number of the operating conditions there by the reducing the time and money. A new computer software, like Solid works flow simulation, FLUENT, CFX are some of the methods used to analyse the muffler.
- Cylinder head and exhaust manifold
- A turbocharger to increase engine power.
- The catalytic converter to reduce the air pollution.
- A muffler (North America) / silencer (UK/India), to reduce noise.
MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY
To the estimate the performance parameter that is the pressure variation in muffler the following methods are should be the done follows:
- The Flow pattern CAD model of muffler is created in the Solid works.
- Analysis is carried out in CFD simulation with boundary conditions.
- These methods are the carried out for study of backpressure in chambered exhaust muffler and results are the discussed.
- Designs are created in CATIA V5 using part modelling and afterword the manufacturing and simulation is created.
Project design and development
Project design and methodology
- As per the current scenario the traditional mufflers causes excess of the noise through the muffler but it is not meet the BS markings to the 2k18 conditions so we need to continuously improvement into the exhaust system.
- The new muffler is designed on the parameter of volume based.
- The design of the muffler plays a vital role in the beginning of the design.
- The 2D pictorial view of the muffler shows below.
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF MATERIALS
The various factors which can be determine the choice of material are the discussed below.
The material selected are must be possess the necessary properties for the proposed application. The various requirements are to be satisfied can be the weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to the withstand environmental attack from the chemicals, service life, reliability etc. The following four types of the principle properties of the materials decisively affect their selection.
The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection.
- From manufacturing point of view
The various physical properties are concerned are melting point, thermal Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, electrical conductivity, specific gravity, magnetic purposes etc. The various Mechanical Properties are Concerned are the strength in tensile, Compressive shear, , torsion ,bending and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, elastic limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties. The various properties are concerned from the manufacturing point of the view are.
- Cast ability
- Weld ability
- Surface properties
- Deep drawing etc.
Operations used for fabrication.
- Raw materials: The raw material is the basic material used in the productions for the finished products, goods, the term “raw material” is used to be denote material which is the unprocessed.
- Marking: Marking is the process of making visible impressions on the metal surface so that required operations can be carried out as per the dimensions.
- Cutting: The raw material cut into the required dimensions using the grinding wheel cutters. Metal cutting is the done by a relative motion between the work and piece and the hard edge cutting tools, which is the multi-point cutting tools.
- Welding: The assembly of the base table is done by the process of the welding. In the case of the process is the done by “Arc Welding”. Arc welding is the type of welding process that uses a welding power supply to be create an electric arc between the electrode and the base material to melt the metal at the welding points. They can use either direct or alternating current, and consumable and non-consumable electrodes.
- Drilling:-Drilling is easily the most common machining process. Drilling involves the creation of the holes that are the right circular cylinders. This is the accomplished most of typically by using the twist drill. The chips must be exit through the flutes to the outside of the tool. The cutting front is the embedded within the work piece, making the cooling difficult. The cutting area can be the flooded, coolant spray mist can be the applied, or coolant can be delivered through the drill bit shaft.
- Hand Grinding: Hand Grinding is the finishing process used to the improve surface finish area, abrade hard materials, and tighten the tolerance on the flat and the cylindrical surface area by the removing the small amount of material. In grinding the abrasive material rubs against the metal part and removes the tiny pieces of the material. The abrasive material is typically on the basis surface area of the wheel and belt.
- Thus Designing and Analysis is Studied.
- Behaviour of pressure, Temperature and Velocity is analysed.
- Meshing and Skive ness parameter is studied.
- Flow of Gas inside the muffler is analysed.