Mechanical Project By Bicycle Operated Water Purifier | Double Acting Reciprocating Pump | HISTORY OF FILTER | WHAT IS MEAN BY MEMBRANE

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INTRODUCTION

Water purification is the process in removing undesirable the chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal of his process of the produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water of disinfected for the human consumption drinking water but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications.

In general the method use the  include physical processes with  as a filtration, sedimentation, and distillation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic inn the radiation such of light. The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved the  particulate material derived for the surfaces is water may have made contact with after falling as rain. The standards for drinking water the quality are typically in governments of the international standards.

The most common type of the filter as the rapid sand filter. Water moves the vertically through as sand which to be often has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. The top layer removes organics compounds, which contribute to the taste and odor. The space between to sand particles is the larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration is not enough. Most particles pass through of the surface layers but are the trapped are the pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. Effective filtration extend into the depth is the filter. This property of the filter is key in to   operation: if you the top layer of sand were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog. To clean the filter, water is the passed quickly upward the through are filter, opposite the normal direction (called back flushing or backwashing) to remove embedded particles.

Prior to the step, compressed air may be to blown up the through a bottom of the filter a break up the compacted filter media to aid the backwashing process; this is known as air scouring. This contaminated water can be the disposed a along with the sludge for the sedimentation basin, or it can be recycled by mixing with the raw water entering the plant although this is a often considered poor practice an since it is the re-introduces and elevated concentration of bacteria into the raw water.

LITERATURE SURVEY

Having access to clean the water has capability of the improving four in the major problems in the developing world; these are education, hunger, health and poverty. years, are the organization is able to help in a more worldwide scale currently having active When children are the freed from gathering water they can be return to class. Especially young girls, who are commonly responsible for the task, are able to stay in school through their teenage years .The United Nations estimates that Sub-Saharan Africa alone loses 40 billion hours the per year collecting water; the same has an entire year’s labor in all of France! A study conducted in 2010 by UNICEF as a progress report on their Millennium Development Goals shows that more than a quarter of the population in Africa takes longer than  a 30 minutes to be make one water the collection round trip. Water leads to be food security, with a continued access in to the less crop loss occurs and hunger is reduced. As of today many non-profit organizations have Time to Collect Drinking Water in Sub-Saharan Africa surfaced, all with one goal in common.

Bicycle Water Purifier

Its main the advantage over existing as technology it is mobility which means that it is suitable for a variety of applications such as irrigation, agricultural, light industrial and domestic water transportation. The achievable pumping head and flow rate are the directly related to be the input power. Therefore the performance is pump will vary on the who is peddling and how so much effort they are putting in. Bicycle has be dual functions of the transporting equipment and driving membrane filtration system. UF membrane 0.5 micron the removes suspended particulates, colloidal material and certain bacteria. Cleaning if  you membrane is easily done by switching of positions in the flexible tubing direction and pedaling so much that clean water flows in reverse direction, flushing out the particulates stuck on membrane surface.

In any process plant, of the  centrifugal pump in to use to first convert energy of an electric motor or turbine into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure energy of a fluid that is being pumped. The energy is change occurs due to the impeller and diffuser of the pump. The impeller is the rotating part in the convert’s driver energy into the kinetic energy. The diffuser and stationary part that converts an kinetic energy into pressure energy. All of the forms the energy involved in the liquid flow system are expressed in to terms of feet of liquid that is the head.

Double Acting Reciprocating Pump

Drinkable water sources are the distant from most as villages in India. Women and children especially spends hours of labor just to meet the basic needs of their families walking five miles and more to nearby towns just to have access to drinkable (purified) water. Some well to be do inhabitants in these villages travel long time distances with motor bikes and trucks which consume fuel and pollute the air. Moreover, a family of the five needs a minimum for the fifteen gallons of water each day.

The only way to the sanitize for stream water available to be these villages is by boiling which also consumes precious resources and contributes to deforestation since the only source of energy for the boiling so much water is the firewood and charcoal . However, a number of the studies from low-income countries have to indicate that improved access to water and the resulting increases in the quantity of water or time used for hygiene are the determining factors of the health benefits, rather than be improvements in the water quality.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Often water sources like wells, river, lakes are distance women /men must travel minimum of 2 to 5 km to fetch the water this is time consuming and laborious.

SOLUTION

The bicycle operated water purifier:  A pedal powered vehicle that transports water and filters it while in motion. It can purify water during the travel back from the water resource to home and also at home while the vehicle is standing in place.

How To Operate Bicycle Operated Water Purifier

1. Impure water from the water source (well / river/lake) etc., is filled in the impure water tank.

2. When pedaling is done to travel back to home drive is given simultaneously to the rear wheels as well as the piston pump drive linkage (slider crank) that drives the piston pump.

3. Piston pump sucks impure water from the impure water tank and delivers it to the inline filter.

4. Inline filter is a three layer purification mechanism with fine mesh stainless steel screen filter, sand and silica and paper filter mechanism to ensure purity of water coming out of filter.

5. The pure water from filter is stored in a clean water tank mounted on the Back of the trike.

6. To purify water when vehicle is not moving operate the stand mechanism disengage the rear wheel drive from the pedal drive now only piston pump drive operates to filter the water while vehicle is not moving.

Bicycle Operated Water Purifier Pump

HISTORY OF FILTER

During the 19 and 20 centuries, water filters for the domestic water production were generally divided into slow sand filters and rapid sand filters also called mechanical filters and American filters. While there were many small water filtration systems prior to 1800, Paisley, Scotland is generally acknowledged as the first city to receive filtered water for an entire town. The Paisley filter operation began operation in 1804 and was an early type of slow sand filter. Throughout a 1800, hundreds of slow sand filters were constructed in the UK and on the European continent. An intermittent slow sand filter operation was constructed and the operated at Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1893 due to continuing typhoid fever epidemics caused by sewage contamination of the water supply.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CARBON FILTER

Activated carbon quality varies enormously. There are the cheap and expensive products on the sale all claiming to work wonders. How does the activated carbon works in carbon filter? Now the let’s learn the Carbon filter products working principle. The activated carbon in the surface of the particles forms the layer of the balance surface concentration and then absorbs the organic material into active carbon. It can be ensure its the high adsorption effect at the early stage. But the active carbon filter adsorption ability will abate subsequently, so is the adsorption effect. If the water quality in aquatic box is the cloudy and the organic matter content in water is high, activated carbon will be the soon lose filter function. So, activated carbon should be the regularly clean or replace.

APPLICATIONS OF REVERSE OSMOSIS

  • Sea water desalination
  • Rural well water purification
  • Industrial water purification
  • Food products and cosmetic products
  • Waste water recycling
  • Municipal water purification
  • Bottled Drinking water production
  • Laboratory water purification

WHAT IS MEAN BY MEMBRANE

  • The membrane is a selective barrier for the separation process
  • Membranes can the separate particles and molecules as per particle size and the molecular weights.
  • Purification of the fluid is done by combination of membranes and diffusion mechanisms.
  • Membranes are the used with pressure as the driving processes in membrane filtration of solutes and reverse osmosis (RO).
  • The membrane is a selective barrier; it allows to some things to pass through but stops others. Such things are may be the molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes.
  • The degree of selectivity of a membrane depends on the membrane pore size, they can be classified as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, Nano filtration, reverse osmosis membranes.
  • Membranes can also be the various thickness, with homogeneous or heterogeneous structure. Membranes can be neutral or charged, and practical transport can be the active or passive.

DESIGN OF COMPONENT

  • DESIGN OF PEDAL SHAFT

ASME Code For Design Of Shaft

                      Since the loads on all most shafts in connected to machinery are not constant, it is necessary to make proper allowance for the harmful effects of load fluctuations

                      According to the ASME code permissible values of shear stress may be calculated form the various relation.

                                    τ= 0.18 x 800

   = 144 N/mm2

OR

                                                         τ = 0.3 Syt

                                                            =0.3 x 680  

                                                           =204 N/mm2

considering minimum of the above value

                      τ = 144 N/mm2

Shaft is the provided with key-way; this will be reduce the strength, Hence reducing above value of the allowable stress by 25%

τ = 144 x 0.75

                             τ = 108 N/mm2

This is the allowable value of the shear stress that can be the induced in the shaft material for safe operations.

To Calculate Pedal Shaft Torque

Force applied by person up to 200N when pedaling.

Length of pedal =120 mm

Note that torque is at the pedal of shaft,

T=200 x120 =24000N-mm

T design   = 24 N-m

Check For Torsional Shear Failure Of Shaft.

Assuming minimum section diameter of the input shaft = 17mm, Note that this dimension is the smallest section of the main shaft where the lobe plate is mounted, hence, (manufacturing consideration)

Þ d = 17 mm

             Td = P/16 x τact x d3

τact=  16   x Td

              P  x d 3                                  

                                           τact= 24.57 N/mm2

                          As τact < τall….shaft is safe under torsional load

CONCLUSION

From this projects we conclude;

  1. As water purification is done by using human effort we are able to get the filtered water without use of electricity.
  2. One another important factor of bicycle operated water purifier is it does not causes any type of pollution, hence trike is eco-friendly to environment.
  3. It is able to operate on both standstill as well as travel mode.
  4. Also at standstill condition we are able to operate trike for exercise purpose which improves our health as well able to get filtered water.
  5. Hence purification of water is done by using by pumping action which gives us filtered water without any cost.


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