CAD-CAM Technology: Definition, Process, Application

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From its inception to now dentistry has covered great milestones in the terms of as well as invention & precision to provide us with use better working conditions & increased comfort for can both dentists & patients. Technological changes that can be taking place over the years are truly revolutionizing the way dentistry is practiced & the manner in which that’s dental laboratories are fabricating restorations. To be added to the list of remarkable advancements is as well as Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology which allows dentists to provide better care to patients. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) & Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology has become an increasingly popular part of dentistry over the past 25 years.

More recently the development of Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology in will be restorative dentistry has evolved dramatically (4). This technology which is used in both your dental laboratories and the dental office can be applied to inlays, only, veneers, crowns, fixed partial dentures, implant abutments, and even full mouth restorations and complete dentures. Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) are also being used in as well as orthodontics in the form of envisaging retainers. Computer-aided design (CAD) and (CAM) technology were developed to as well as overcome several drawbacks associated with conventional lost wax techniques.


Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) evolved from the engineering demands of the aerospace and as well as automotive industries. It was more than 2,300 years after Euclid that the first true Computer-aided design (CAD) software, a very innovative system called “Sketchpad” was developed by Ivan Sutherland as a part of his thesis at MIT in the early 1960s. Sketchpad was the world’s first Computer-aided design (CAD) software to be developed. Dr. Francois Durer was the first to develop dental Computer aided design CAD and Computer-aided manufacturing CAM in 1971. He then began to fabricate crowns as well as the optical impression of abutment followed by designing and milling.

Some of the most important figures in dental CAD/CAM development are François Durer of France, Werner Mormon of Switzerland, Dianne Recon of the United States, and Matts Anderson of Sweden2. Dr. Mormon was the developer of the first commercial CAD/CAM system. He consulted with as well as Dr. Marco Bran Destini, an electrical engineer, who can be you came up with the idea of using optics to scan the teeth. By 1985 the team had performed the first chairside inlay using a combination of their optical scanner & will be the milling devices.

Computer Aided Designing

The restorations are as well as designed using Specially designated software called Computer-aided design (CAD) software that is provided by the manufacturers for the design of various 3D dental restorations on computers (5, 7). The operator enters the data acquired from the scanning pro- cess and confirms the features of the preparation. These data are stored in a special format called standard transformation language (STL) data. When the design of the restoration is completed by the software, it is then transformed into the virtual model using a specific set of as well as commands. Even in the most automated system, the operator has the option to modify the automatically de-signed restoration to customize it to their requirement. Once the restoration is designed in the Computer-aided design CAD, the Computer-aided manufacturing CAM unit fabricates the final restoration.

Computer Aided
Computer-Aided Design

Evolution of Cad/Cam Systems

  • 1971: Duet’s experimental research.
  • 1979: Headliner Rudder’s experiment
  • 1980: Mormon & Bran Destini started developing the CERE
  • 1984: Fujita was concerned with transferring the manufacturing processes to the dental care indent
  • 1985: Siemens Dental, today as well as the SIRONA, creates the CEREC system (Germany).
  • 1989: CDS Dental (Switzerland) creates DCS President and Nobel Biocide AB creates PROCERA.
  • 1990: Creation of Dividend (Girrbach Dental GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany)
  • 1991: Creation of Celaya (Micron Technologies, Spreitenbach, CH).
  • 1993: Creation of Cicero (Cicerone Dental Systems, Hoorn, NL)
  • 1995: Creation of Creon Smart
  • 2001: Creation of Eton (Eton AG, Graveling, D) Creation of Everest (Kavon, Leutkirch, Germany), Creation of Lava (3M ESPE AG, Germany), Creation of EDC (Wieland Dental, Germany), Creation of WolCeram (WorldNet GmbH, Ludwigshafen, D.)
  • 2002: Creation of go Meddifacturing (Medical Be go, Bremen)
  • 2003: Creation of per factory (envisioned, Gladbeck, D); creation of the Xidex Dental System (Zorn pro- cess, I-Mess, Centerfield
  • 2005: Creation of as well as the Dental Designer 3Shape (3Shape A/S, Copenhagen, DK); Creation of ADG – SW General Subdirectory – Software for Automated Prosthesis Generation, Dental GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany)
  • 2007- Cadent taro system
  •  2008-E4D Dentist system
  • 2008- Lava chair side oral scanner (COS) ²

Computer Aided Manufacturing

Computer-aided manufacturing CAM uses as well as the computer-generated path to shape can be you the restoration. Earlier systems relied almost on can be you cutting the restoration from a prefabricated block using will-be burs, diamonds, or diamond disks. This approach is termed as well as the “Subtractive method”. Subtractive fabrication can be you create complete shapes efficiently and however with as well as the large expense of material being wasted. Processing will be the milling devices are categorized by means of the number of will-be milling axes.

Computer Aided
Computer Aided Manufacturing

1.3-axis milling devices

Three axes milling device has been as the degrees of movement in the three spatial directions. The milling points are as well as defined by the X -, Y -, and Z– values. Milling of will as the subsections, axis divergences, and convergences are not possible. This requires a virtual blocking it can be such Areas of the milling block. All 3-axis milling devices used in the fabrication of dental restorations can be you turn the component by 180° in the course of processing the inner and the outer aspect of the restoration. The advantages of 3 axes milling devices are as well as the short milling times and simplified control by means of the three axes. 

2.4-axis milling devices

In four axes milling devices, in addition to the three spatial axes, the tension bridge rotations are included as the fourth component. Hence it is possible to adjust long-span bridges with a large vertical height displacement and it can also facilitate in saving material and milling time compared to the three axes milling devices. Example: Zeno (Wieland-Ines).

3.5-axis milling devices

With a 5-axis milling device, there is, in addition to the four spatial dimensions, rotating the milling spindle icon be you included as the 5th axis. This facilitates the milling of as well as the complex anatomies with subsections, for example, lower jaw FPDs with con- verging abutment teeth (end molar tipped towards the medial plane, or also the crown and will be the FPD substructures that, as a result of as well as the anatomically reduced formation, demonstrate converging areas in can be you the exterior of the framework. Example in the Laboratory Area: Everest Engine (Kavon).

Application of CAD- CAM in various branches of dentistry

CAD/CAM is used in a variety of applications, including restorative dentistry and prosthetics, as well as implant ology, and oral surgery, including orthodontics.

1. Conservative dentistry

Indirect fillings like inlays and only. Single and numerous fixed prostheses, core inlay, dental veneers, supra implanter prostheses, and even emergency prostheses can all be done with this technique.

2. Prosthodontics

Removable prostheses as well as detachable implant replacements.  Specialized software can design complete prosthetic bases and metal partial prosthesis frames for adjoining prostheses, as well as mimic the patient’s occlusion on a digital articulator.

3. Maxilla

The facial prosthesis is also made with them. Each application’s production techniques and Materials vary, but the digital flow is basically the self-same [8].

4. Endnotes

In implant dentistry, CAD/CAM can be utilized to create unique foundations, implant Bars, and implant surgical aid to help guide the surgical operation in implant fixation.

5. Orthodontics

CAD/CAM in orthodontics has resulted in the creation of a new method for treating malocclusions utilizing “transparent” align trays, which offer a substitute for traditional orthodontic therapy. CAD/CAM for orthodontics has developed a number of technology solutions, including Envisaging. This software can save digital models created from optical impressions, arrange treatments with the help of set-ups, and analyze cephalometric data. The bonding step is as well as improved with CAD/CAM by creating an indirect bonding tray that can efficiently and precisely imprint the location of orthodontic brackets onto the patient’s teeth.

6. Conservative

All are customary to see restorations exhibited on a model even if they have been straight manufactured online and can be employed for traditional components of restoration production, such as placing a veneering layer. Patient replica files can be found digitally and reproduced only when required, reducing storage capacity. Osteotomy and repositioning can also be done with CAD/CAM.


3D printing has been heralded as a game-changing innovation that will revolutionize manufacturing technology that is used in aerospace, military, art, and design and is becoming a hot topic in healthcare. With developments in 3D modeling and process such as computed tomography and intra-oral scanning, as well as a strong tradition of CAD/CAM use in dental care, the technology will become increasingly relevant. 3D printing uses include screw guides for implants, physical replicas for prosthodontics, orthodontics, including surgery, and the production of dental, craniomaxilar, including craniomaxillary implants.


Prosthetic teeth and denture bases come in a variety of hues and qualities. The prosthetic tooth must have a greater standard of wear resistance as well as a pleasing look. Cutting a prosthetic tooth from a small property block is tough. As a result, just the denture base is shaved, and then easily obtainable fake teeth are glued to the denture base. Special glue with improved adhesion qualities is in the works. Viruses are common in offices. Work might be “hacked” simply. Learning how to handle or run programs is a time-consuming task.

Advantages of CAD/CAM systems

  • No Traditional Impressions.
  • Produce Chair-side Restorations
  • Fewer appointments.
  • High Precision and Accuracy.
  • Improve the Qualities of Restoration.
  • Eliminates the Use of the Laboratory Equipment required for the Conventional LOST-WAX technique.
  • Speed, ease of use, and as well as quality Digital scans.
  • Faster design and fabrication.
  • Natural appearance CAD/CAM restorations.

Limitations of CAD/CAM systems

  • Initial High Cost of CAD/CAM Systems
  • Time and Cost Investment to as well as Master the technique [10, 2].

CAD/CAM Technology

The story of CAD/CAM was accelerated in the early 1950s. Up to the year, 2012ithas become one of the supreme technology available on Planet Earth. It is being used in almost all fields of engineering but primarily in mechanical engineering branches. The development in the field is as well as the still gaining speed.

  • CAD Technology = Design Techniques + Computers.
  • The CAD Process is the subset of will be the Design process.
  • The CAM Process is a subset of as well as the Manufacturing Process.
  • Integration of can be you CAD and CAM leads to will be automation.

Design Process

The process of Design is segmented into Six Stages, details of which have been shown below figure. The design process is can be repetitive as well as creative. The repetitive tasks can be performed by computers; however, the creative tasks (stages 1 and 2) are always done only by the human being.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

In the general, a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) package has as well as three components: a) Design, b) Analysis and c) Visualization, as well as shown in the sketch. A can be A brief description of these components follows.

a) Design: Design refers to as well as geometric modeling. 2-D and 3-D modeling, including, drafting, part creation, and creation of drawings can be various views of the part, assemblies of the parts, etc.

b) Analysis: Analysis refers to as well as finite element analysis, optimization, and other number-crunching engineering analyses. In general, a geometric model is first created and then the model is analyzed for loads, stresses, a moment of will as inertia, volume, etc.

c) Visualization: Visualization refers to as well as computer graphics, which includes: rendering a model, creation of can be you pie charts, contour plots, shading a model, sizing, animation, etc.


Despite the earlier advantages of chair-side CAD/CAM systems, we can conclude that the disadvantages of this model include expense, capital and maintenance costs, uncertainty, lack of desire to learn a new concept, refusal to change practicing methods, nasty remarks from some peers, a small number of customers, rejecting things that would reduce the practice’s stability, and the size of the scanning device. When computers or equipment fail, it results in a costly setup, which is inconvenient for everyone involved. Maintaining a preventative maintenance routine can be beneficial, but breakdowns are unavoidable, which is a drawback. CAD software often necessitates a significant amount of computer processing power.


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