Basics of SEO

Published by Nilofar Pathan on


SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization. SEO is a technique used for designing and developing a website to rank high in search engine results. It is a subset of search engine marketing. Thus, SEO is useful in increasing the number of visitors to a website. This article introduces a few ways at the beginner’s level. Let’s discuss Basics of SEO.

A search Engine is an online program or software that helps users to search for information on the world wide web. Examples of Search Engines include Google, Yahoo, and Bing.

Furthermore, 80 percent of Internet users also search for products or services by using search engines mostly (interactive advertisements). It is an easy and effective way to introduce and market a company by using a web page.

To achieve this, information related to the company is obtained by using search engines. In a competitive business environment, moving up to the top lists can be achieved by using search engine optimization.

Briefly, search engine optimization (SEO) is enabling a website to appear in the top result lists of a search engine for certain keywords. Many different factors enable a website to move up top results.

The most effective way to take the attention of many users relates to search engine optimization. Because search engine optimization is based on keywords that are suitable to the website and can be used to search with search engines.

There are many strategies and techniques adopted to optimize the webpage. This article introduces a few ways at the beginner’s level.

Types of SEO

There are two types of optimizations

On-Page SEO

It includes the Provision of good content, good keyword selection, putting keywords in the correct places, giving appropriate titles to every page, etc.

On-Page SEO is concerned with information that is displayed to the end user, such as text, images, and website navigation.

Off-Page SEO

It includes link building, increasing link popularity by submitting open directories, search engines, link exchange, etc.

Off-Page SEO is concerned with Website-Website relationships, Do other websites refer to you, do you refer to others? , How good is your network?

Techniques of SEO

These are classified into two broad categories:

White Hat SEO Techniques that search engines recommend as a part of good design.

Black Hat SEO Techniques that search engines do not approve. The techniques used for optimizing the website are manipulative.

Relevant contentDuplicate content
Well-labeled imagesInvisible text and stuffed keyword
Relevant links and references  Cloaking or re-directing the user to another site or page  
Complete sentences with good spelling and grammar  Links from sites with non-relevant content  
Standard-compliant HTML   
Unique and relevant page titles 

Optimizing Website

There are various sections of a website that can be optimized for better SEO. Some of the ways to optimize the webpage for SEO.

SEO: Page structure optimization

  • Html programs should start with <!doctype html>.
  • If it is singular tag eg<img> it should be self-enclosed like this  <img />
  • Order of tags should be proper. Most of the time recently opened tags will be closed first.

It is recommended to use

  • <TITLE>: Title is the first thing that the user notices the in the search result list while using Google for searching. Contents should be up to 60 characters (spaces included)
  • Meta-description Tag: While creating a web page, Meta description should be used to boost your On-Page SEO. Meta Description should be between 70 and 160 characters (spaces included)
  • Heading Tags: The page should include proper heading tags from <h1> to <h6> wherever required.
  • Image Tags with ALT attribute: The alt attribute gives information about the image, so even if the image does not download, it can make the viewers understand the image-related information.

Examples of optimized Webpages

Example 1:

<!doctype html>


<head><title> Page structure with appropriate order of opening and closing tags</title>



<h1> Basics of SEO</h1>

<p>Webpage optimization helps for higher ranking in search engines.

<b>There are several ways to optimize the pages. <i>Even social media plays an important role!!!</i>




Example 2:


<head><title> Meta tag and Image tag

</title> <meta name=”description” content=”statue of unity”>

<meta name=”keywords” content=”alt, optimization of image”> <meta name =”image” content =”Statue of Unity”>


<h1> Let us understand Meta and Image for optimization </h1>

<p> <img src =”statue of liberty. jpg” alt=”Statue of Unity image”/> </p>


SEO Keywords

SEO keywords are the important words and phrases related to the developed website content. A list of keywords. Need to be carefully chosen to optimize the search. Keyword Research and Analysis is an important part of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) as well as “Search Engine Marketing”. For “Search Engine Marketing”, one can pay for certain keywords.

There are various online Keyword Planner tools (such as Google AdWords Keyword Planner) to shortlist keywords. This is more useful to compare the cost of various keywords if the website designer opts for Paid Search Engine Marketing (SEM).

SEO Social Bookmarking

Social bookmarking is a powerful tool for promoting a website. It is very useful for Off-Page SEO optimization.

Bookmarks are website links that are stored for future reference. They are very useful especially when Web pages with long URLs are not easy to remember. Bookmarking service allows you to save, organize and share bookmarks with other users. External links are important SEO factors to rank a website higher in the search engine. With Social bookmarking, you can quickly create high-quality backlinks.

SEO-Social Media Optimization (SMO)

It deals with enhancing the website’s ranking, using interactive communities like Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, forums, and so on. When these communities have links to the created website it builds familiarity and trust about the website.


Backlinks are links on one website that, when clicked, take the user to another site. Backlinks are especially valuable for SEO because they contribute to the overall strength and value of the content. They also represent a “vote of confidence” from one site to another. In short, backlinks to your website are a signal to search engines that others are interested to know about the contents of your website.

Other factors for SEO

  • Speed of the website: While creating a website, attention is given to the design, content, and as many visuals as possible. However, this can slow down the website and obstruct usability.
  • Mobile friendly: The website’s mobile friendliness has become a ranking factor for Google. Hence, it is very important to ensure that the created website is mobile-friendly for maximum experience and to improve the website ranking.
  • Creating Robots.txt: This file tells the search engine which pages you want to exclude from indexing. For example, if you do not want a certain page or image being indexed, then you can restrict that page from being indexed.

SEO Audit

An SEO Audit helps to find out what could be done to improve ranking on search engines so that consumers could find the website with greater ease. It analyses the website’s health.

Ex-Seomator and SEOptimer are a few free SEO audit tools available on the net.

SEOptimer is a free SEO Audit Tool that will perform a detailed SEO Analysis. It provides clear and actionable recommendations that can be taken to improve your online presence.

Audit Results of SEOPtimizer will have the following details

  • Overall Ranking of the site
  • Recommendations for improvements
  • Search Engine Optimization
  • Usability of the website
  • Performance of a website
  • Social links
    • Connected social accounts
  • Security parameters
    • SSL Enabled
    • HTTPS Redirect
    • Email Privacy
  • Header content recommendations
    • Title and Meta description
  • Body Content
    • Header Tags
    • Body content recommendations
    • Keyword Consistency
    • Amount of content on the pages
  • Links
    • Number of backlinks
    • Broken links
    • Friendly links
    • On-page links
  • Technology list which is used in the website
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