ABS System: Construction, Advantages, Future Scope, How it Works, Importance

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(ABS) Anti -Lock Braking Systems are designed to maintain the driver control and stability of the car during the emergency braking system. Locked wheels will be slow in car down but will not provide steering ability of ABS. ABS to be allowed to maximum braking  applied while retaining the ability to ‘steer out of trouble’

The theory behind anti-lock brakes is simple. A skidding wheel the tire contact patch is sliding relative to the road has less traction than a non-skidding wheel. By keeping the wheels from skidding while you slow down, ABS benefit you get in two ways: You’ll stop faster, and you’ll be able to steer while you stop. The ABS is maintain the maximum braking to apply in the car system.

An ABS is monitoring of car brake system and evaluate the control system. Slip can be calculating by the ratio of the wheel speed to vehicle speed, which is continuously calculated from the four individual wheel speeds. During the braking event, the function of the control system is to be maintain maximum possible wheel grip on road – without the wheel locking – by adjusting the hydraulic fluid pressure to each brake system by way of the electronically controlled by the solenoid valves.

Construction of ABS System

ABS System Consists of the following Components:-

  1. Master cylinder
  2. Hydraulic control unit
  3. Electronic control unit (ECU)
  4. Tooth wheel & speed sensor
  5. Valves
  6. Pump
  7. Speed Sensor
  8. Controller

Advantages Of ABS System.

  1. Avoid accident
  2. Less braking distance
  3. More effective system
  4. Stering control is applied to desired direction
  5. Less force required

Application of ABS System:-

  • Car ,Bike

What is the advantages of Anti-Lock Braking System or ABS?

When an ABS works, the brakes are applied and released padel times in one second, and hence, the system ensures that the wheels do not lock up under hard braking. The vehicle slows down while maintaining its grip, and the available traction also as allows the driver to give steering inputs. The vehicle helps to driver for vehicle to avoid an accident. The advanced ABS hence offers significant benefits over normal brakes. Easy to handle and quick brake system.

How does an ABS System Work

BS is an effective system that regulates your car in the heavy braking situations. Each wheels has separate sensors are used when a lock and detected. The ABS system to pumps the brakes immediately, heating the car in the process.

Future Scope:-

In this work system are non-linear model and controller is a linear type hence the effectiveness of the controller may not be a good. In this line, as a future scope of the work well known linear controllers like neural networks, neuron-fuzzy, and fuzzy PID systems may be employed. Also, real time implementation of the control system logic is the needed with a on board micro-controller mounted over a small scaled model of the vehicle

Importance Of Antilock Braking Systems:-

The objectives of antilock systems are threefold: 1. to reduce stopping distances, 2. to improve stability, and 3. to improve steer ability during braking.


In this thesis an attempt is made to the understand the application of various type of the linear controller used in antilock braking systems. The system was model with a quarter vehicle dynamics and differential equation of the motion was formulate. The slip ratio is used to control the as a criteria for this control work. Friction force and normal reaction are the function of slip ratio and the turn all equations were non-linear. The 2 order differential equations were written as the three state space equations (1st order equations) and solutions are obtained by time integration method and are directly achieved with MATLABTM Simulink block diagrams. The time history of the wheel, stop distance of the vehicle, and slip factor variation are obtained for benchmark problem available in literature. Various central types like P-type, PD-type, PI-type, and PID type have been implemented to augment the constant braking torque so as to control the slip ratio.

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